The eye conditions we diagnosis and treat most often include: dry eye, conjunctivitis, corneal dystrophy, keratoconus, glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, ptosis, binocular vision dysfunctions, strabismus, amblyopia, myopia, astigmatism, hyperopia, presbyopia, anterior uveitis, vitreous floaters and retinal detachment.
Dry Eye Disease
Dry eye is a multifactorial disease in which a decreased quality and quantity of tear film results in ocular surface damage. Dry eye disease may cause burning, watery eyes, or red eyes. We offer expert treatment for dry eye disease.
Dr. Josh regularly lecturers to colleagues and clinical staff around the country regarding dry eye. Mild dry eye can be managed medically with targeted eye drops and oral medications. As the disease progresses, punctal plugs may help to retain tear film and prevent ocular surface damage. When there is significant and severe ocular surface damage, amniotic membrane allografts may be used to repair damaged tissue.
Conjunctivitis (Red Eye or Pink Eye)
The conjunctiva is an outer layer of cells covering the eye. Conjunctiva can become inflamed, which makes the eye appear pink. Pink eye is the common name for conjunctivitis. Inflammation can be from exposure to antigens, bacteria, viruses, particulate matter, dust, debris, injury, insult, or surface dryness.
It is important to see an eye doctor to determine the cause of the inflammation and how to best treat it. We are experts in determining what is causing the inflammation and how to treat it properly. This will prevent it from worsening and can alleviate the redness, itching, and watering from conjunctivitis with the correct combination of environmental modifications, eye drops, and medicines.
Keratoconus & Corneal Irregularities
The cornea is the clear dome at the front of one’s eye. Irregularities of the cornea, such as keratoconus, can cause blurred vision. Corneal dystrophies can cause blurred vision and discomfort. We have sophisticated diagnostic imaging equipment, including specular microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography, which aids in the treatment and management of corneal disease. We also utilize computerized corneal topography, and a detailed mapping of the cornea, which can be used in achieving the best fitting contact lenses. Scleral contact lenses can be an excellent choice for the treatment of keratoconus or any corneal irregularity.
Scleral contact lenses help to improve vision in those who suffer blurred vision from keratoconus and other corneal irregularities.
Corneal dystrophies adversely impact the cornea (the clear dome at the front of your eye). Endothelial corneal dystrophy causes problems with the endothelial layer, which is the innermost layer of the cornea. The endothelial layer plays a valuable role in fluid and ion transport. Endothelial dystrophy can cause fluid to build-up in the cornea, which can lead to blurred vision. This blurred vision may be more noticeable in the morning.
Cataracts cause cloudy vision, halos, and glare. Cataracts may result in vision which cannot be improved with eyeglasses and contact lenses.
Vision may be improved with surgical removal of the cataract. We specialize in the appropriate selection of surgical care. Surgical removal of cataracts is often highly successful at restoring good vision.
Glaucoma is a complex disease causing permanent and progressive loss of vision. The loss of vision is significant and often results in blind spots and tunnel vision. Tunnel vision and blind spots due to glaucoma can often be avoided when early diagnosis occurs and treatment is started. Dr. Mike and Dr. Josh are recognized experts and speak to colleagues professional regarding glaucoma management. We have successfully treated thousands of glaucoma patients. We employ the newest diagnostic techniques and treatments for glaucoma. Diagnostic testing involving imaging of the optic nerve head with fundus photography and anatomical evaluation of the retinal nerve fiber layer with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). Ultrasound pachymetry, assessing corneal thickness and special evaluation of the drainage angle with anterior segment OCT and gonioscopy lenses provides a more complete picture of a patient’s risk for glaucoma. Functionally testing for glaucoma includes sophisticated automated visual field perimetry testing with eye tracking. Neuro-ophthalmic testing using Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) or Electroretinography (ERG) may be used in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. Glaucoma treatment varies on severity and extent of progression and may include: eye drops, oral medications, or surgical procedures.
Diabetic with Ophthalmic Complications
Diabetes causes problems with many portions of the body including eyes. Eyes suffering from complications of diabetes may have blurred vision, missing spots, fluctuating vision, and discomfort. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when the inside of one’s eye is harmed by diabetes which causes adverse changes to the retina often resulting in negative vision changes.
Scanning laser imaging of the macula and retina using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT), fundus photography, auto-fluorescence and computerized automated visual field perimetry testing allows our clinic to detect diabetic changes early and advance timely and appropriate intervention to save vision.
Macular degeneration causes progressive vision loss and blind spots. Detecting macular degeneration early and intervening at the appropriate time with ophthalmic vitamins can keep the degeneration from progressing and harming vision further. Depending on how severe the macular degeneration becomes, intraocular injections or other procedures may be necessary.
Sophisticated imaging of the macula using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT), fundus photography, and computerized automated visual field perimetry testing allows our clinic to detect adverse changes early and help to preserve and maximize vision. Age-related macular degeneration causes night vision to decline. AdaptDx, dark adaptation testing, allows for earlier detection of macular degenerative changes. MaculaRisk, genetic testing with report, allows for gentotypic vitamin selection. Vitamin supplementation, such as EyePromsie AREDS 2, AREDS 2 no zinc, Eniva's Eyehealth formula, and others, helps decrease disease progression.
Cystoid Macular Edema
Cystoid macular edema (CME) causes blurred central vision. Central vision is blurred due to the presence of cystoid (cystic spaces) forming within the macula, which is the center portion or your eye.
CME may occur following Cataract Surgery. It can also present with diabetes, uveitis, or retinal vein occlusions. Prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment is best. With effective treatment, central vision can improve as the cystic swelling of the macula resolves.
Flashes or floaters should be evaluated as soon as possible. Flashes or floaters can be a sign of vitreous degeneration, vitreous syneresis, vitreous detachement.
The retina can shows signs of rhegmatogenous, tractional, exudative, macula-on, macula-off, single break, multiple breaks, partial or complete retinal detachment. If you experience a sensation of a bright camera flash or lighting bolt or other visual disturbance, please contact us for an urgent evaluation. An urgent evaluation is also necessary for floaters, dots, spots, or other adverse changes in vision. Following full evaluation of these vision changes, we can determine whether it is caused by a condition of the vitreous or retina and discuss treatment options with you.
Uveitis is an inflammation of the uvea. This eye inflammation may cause photophobia (light sensitivity), pain, and redness. When these symptoms present, it is important to see an eye doctor.
An eye doctor who is an expert in treating uveitis can provide proper treatment promptly to help save and sometimes restore vision lost from this condition. A systemic work-up including special imaging is often indicated. Your eye doctor will work with you and other specialty care providers to coordinate the best care for you when this is needed.
Ptosis causes the eyelids to appear droopy. Droopy eyelid problems can cause tired eyes and may limit vision. Ptosis should be evaluated by an eye doctor. Complete evaluation of ptosis may involve systemic workup and neurological evaluation. Surgical intervention for ptosis is common.
The adnexa, skin surrounding a person’s eyes, can become inflamed or be a site where lumps or bumps form. Lumps and bumps can cause discomfort, limit vision, or be cancerous. Any lump or bump near the eye should be evaluated and appropriate treatment should be started. Visual field testing and external ocular photography can help guide treatment. assess when it is time to surgically correct ptosis or other eyelid conditions. We have the diagnostic knowledge and equipment necessary to accurately diagnosis and properly manage whatever eyelid issues you have.
Amblyopia can cause permanently blurred vision and lack of proper visual development. Amblyopia can be caused by uncorrected refractive error, eye turns, cataracts, or other congenital or development problems. Comprehensive pediatric eye examinations are essential to assess for risk of amblyopia, determine how best to fix this, and how to insure we maximize the changes for full and proper visual development.
Strabismus is when an eye or eyes deviate or turn away from the normal central position of an eye. This can limit full visual development and cause decreased visual function. Quantifying and characterizing the type and severity of strabismus is important for treatment. Treatment can include eyeglasses with special prismatic components, eye exercises, and vision therapy. Sometimes surgery to correct the misalignment is required followed with eyeglasses and eye exercises.
Refractive error causes blurred vision. This blurred vision is caused when light entering the eye is not perfectly focused to provide crisp vision.
Refractive error may be due to myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), or astigmatism. Presbyopia causes reading trouble as age-related changes render a person less able to change focus from distance to near (accommodate). When blurred vision is due to refractive error, eyeglasses, contact lenses, and/or refractive surgery, such as LASIK or PRK can help provide clear vision.
Binocular Vision Dysfunction
Binocular vision dysfunction occurs when the eyes are unable to align properly. Improper eye alignment can lead to blurred vision, dizziness, eyestrain, eye fatigue, and headaches. When the eyes do not align properly and work well together, a person may have trouble with reading, attention, comprehension, and concentration. A person with binocular vision problems often has a problem with accommodation or convergence. Accommodation is the ability of the eyes to focus on a near target. Convergence is the ability of the eyes to turn together inward toward the nose.
Problems bring both eyes together and being able to focus at a close range can limit performance in school or work. We have optometric, psychological, learning, and behavioral methods to correct these problems allowing people to function optimally at work and/or school. Often a comprehensive approach and systemic program needs to be followed incorporating vision therapy and learning, behavioral and/or cognitive therapies. Our clinic uniquely offers both eye care services with psychological and behavioral services to best serve patients suffering from binocular vision dysfunction and troubles with reading.
Contact us today to seek an examination and treatment for an eye condition that is troubling you. We proudly serve patients in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, and the surrounding communities.